The American Constitution
The American Constitution is the supreme laws of the US, and establishes America´s national government and fundamental laws of the U.S federal system. It was signed on September 17, 1789. Its purpose was to revise the weaker Articles of Confederation that had held the 13 states together after they gained independence from Britain.
Under the first governing paper each state had a separate countries because the national government was weak. In 1789, delegates during the convention, devised a plan to make a stronger government with three branches.
A few years after the Revolutionary War, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and George Washington feared that their young country was on the brink of collapse. In America’s first constitution, the Articles of Confederation, it gave the Confederation Congress the power to make rules and request funds from the states, but it had no enforcement powers, couldn’t regulate commerce, or print money.
The ten first amendments are called the 10 Bill of Rights. They are the ten first amendments that were passed and ratified in 1791 of James Madision´s intial twelve. They are (in order):
||Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
||Right to keep and bear arms in order to maintain a well regulated militia.
||No quartering of soldiers.
||Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
||Right to due process of law, freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy.
||Rights of accused persons, e.g., right to a speedy and public trial.
||Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
||Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.
||Other rights of the people.
||Powers reserved to the states.
The 13th Amendment
“1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
This Amendment formally abolished slavery. It states that slavery and involuntary servitude is illegal, except as a punishment for crime.
The 19th Amendment
Voting Rights for Men and Women
“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.”
This Amendment was ratified August 18th, 1920. It provides both men and women with equal voting rights. It prohibits the state and the federal government from denying the right to vote on the basis of sex. There had been several attempts to pass it before that, but it failed until 1919. The amendment were initially introduced in 1878.