I Am Not a Sunday Morning

Term Test Fall 2019

English Literature and Culture

Task 3

I Am Not a Sunday Morning

The poem “I Am Not a Sunday Morning Inside Four Walls” by Charlotte Eriksson is a short and simple poem about accepting yourselves, and not worrying about what other people think. We are now going to look at some of the literary devices used in the poem, and how they enhance this message.

In the poem the author uses a lot of visual elements, or imagery to enhance her message, for instance, by using metaphors. An example is “I am the hurricane setting fire to the forests.”  This does not only make the language of the poem more colourful, but Eriksson creates a picture in our heads of something creating a mess, or causing destruction. This makes it easier for us as readers to create a visual picture in our heads of what she is saying. The author also writes “until my bones ache and lungs split,” which is another metaphor or picture.

In addition, Eriksson uses symbols in the very beginning of the poem when writing the simple phrase, “I am not a Sunday morning inside four walls with clean blood and organized drawers.” This means in simple terms that “I am a mess.” Eriksson uses symbols like “a Sunday morning,” where “a Sunday Morning” can symbolise “a calm day” or a holy day. What this does is creating several layers of meaning to the sentences when describing herself. She also uses symbols like “I live in my own flames,” where flames can symbolise destruction or energy. “Flames,” in this case, represents several traits, and means more than just flames. This makes us, the readers, think and encourages audience response. Eriksson’s words and description helps us understand the message by giving an image of what she means.

As well as imagery, the rhythm of the poem helps enhance the message by strengthening the meaning of the words. For instance, Eriksson uses literary devices like repetition to give the poem its rhythm. She repeats “I am” throughout the text, and towards the end “I run.” This gives the poem a flow and emphasizes the words, and the meaning of the poem. When repeating “I am,” it enhances that the poem is about “me”, or herself, or even us the readers. This makes the poem also more personal, and relatable, and makes a stronger impact. She also respites “run” three time right after each other, which creates a sing-song-rhythm. It makes the poem flow better.

Including repetition Eriksson also uses alliteration to give the poem its rhythm. An example is “burning too bright,” and “alive or awake.” This helps to create character and a mood by repeating similar sounds. It also gives the poem a certain flow, and gains our, the audience, attention.

Not to mention, the metre of the poem also works as a literary device. If we look at the metre in the beginning of the words the sentences have many syllables, and are quite long, the first sentence having twelve syllables. This makes the speed quite slow and the beginning, and every word clearer. Than towards the end, the sentences are shorter and have fewer syllables, which makes the poem naturally speedier at that point. It is almost like a build-up, or a climax towards the end. This helps making the poem even more powerful, and the impact even greater.

As a result, the message of the people makes a strong impact because of the authors talented writing.  Altogether, the literary devices add depth and deeper meaning to the poem and its message. The metaphor and symbols add a deeper meaning to the poem, and gives the opportunity to interpret them in many ways, and its meanings. The rhythm, and its build up as well makes the poem more impactful.

The poems message is that “I am not a Sunday morning inside four walls,” in other words,  I am not a calm person that have my life in order, “I am the hurricane setting fire to the forests,” I am the person who creates mess and chaos around me, but even though I am all of those things “you choose to see it,” and I did not ask you to. I decide who I want to be, and what I want to do. “I am the slave and ruler of my own body.”

The Kite Runner – Analysis

The Kite Runner Analysis

The book “The kite runner,” written by Khaled Hosseini, is a book about a man´s quest for redemption, this man being Amir, and Afghan immigrant,

The book takes place in multiple countries, over the expand of multiple decades. From 1981 until 2001. The most important moments in the book though are set in Afghanistan. The setting is important to the story because the fact they are in Afghanistan becomes important for some things, and political conflicts that happens later on in the book, especially things when it comes to events like Russian invasion, and the Taliban regime that changes the main characters life.

The book starts in in medias res, with the main character looking back on the past, recalling something that happened when he was twelve, that quote on quote(?) “made him who he is today.” This leaves us curious of what happened to this man. It remains unclear what happened. He talks about receive a phone call from someone named Rahim khan that wants to see Amir for I reason we do not jet know. The plot moves back in time, chronological, and then end up in present time where the first chapter ended.

In the beginning of the book we are in Kabul, Afghanistan, where we met twelve-year-old Amir. Amir is the main character in the book, the protagonist and the narrator. The entire book is written from Amir´s perspective, in first person point of view, through various stages of his life. We follow him from the age of twelve, to when he is a grown man. Writing the book in his point of view makes the story, I think, more personal, and what is described feels closer and more realistic. It is his story and his memories that the book is based on, so I felt like it was natural to put us as readers inside his mind. We hear him telling us what he feels and sees. The book is Amir looking back on his past, and he takes us as readers with him.

In the beginning, when Amir is young he lives with his father, Baba, in a wealthy and lavish household in Kabul. He doesn´t have many friends, except one, Hassan, his servant, although it its clear in the book that he does not really look at Hassan as a friend, but more someone that he just hangs out with. An example from the book is when Amir and Hassan is confronted by a boy named Assef, who askes Amir “how he can call Hassan his friend.” Amir goes on to say, or not out loud, “but he´s not my friend.” He also goes on to say that “he is my servat,” and that he only played with Hassan when there weas no one else around.

The thing is that Hassan status in society is different than Amir´s. Amir is a Pashnut, and Hassan a Hazara. In the book we are informed about the social differences between those two ethnic group, and that Hazaras have been oppressed by Pashnus for ages. In the book the he said “part of the reason why [Hazaras was looked down upon] was that Pashtuns were Sunni-Muslims, while Hazaras were Shi´a” The book also says that Hazaras were called “mice-eating, flat-nosed, load carrying donkeys,” which givs us a seens of what mindset most of the Pashtuns had towards people like Hassan.

At this stage of the book I did not get the best impression of Amir. The thing with Amir is that he is not a bad person, but he treats Hassan bad at times. He switches from being a good and loving friend, that reads and helps Hassan, to suddenly treating him like trash. For instance, he reads to Hassan from his book because Hassan asked him to read for him, but when he comes over a hard word, Amir almost belittle Hassan and enjoys the fact that Hassan know less then him. An example from the book is when Amir says “my favorite part of reading to Hassan was when we came across a big word that he didn´t know. Id tease him, expose his ignorance.”

It seems it is a way of making him feel better about himself. He does not seem to have a lot of self-confidence. I didn´t exatly root for Amir in the beginning, eventhough I did feel bad for him at times, but I personally felt more sory for Hassan.

Again, Amir constantly puts Hassan beneath him, because he can and he wants to. Hassan are already. Luckly, Amir is a dynamic character that changes. At some point, when Hassan and Ali has left him and Baba he realices what a bad person he has been to him, and the guilt kicks in.

Amir is insecure in the beginning. That is why he treats Hassan that way. Amir constantly searches for his father approval, but feels like he hates him and blames him for his mothers death. He also feels like a failure of a son, because he can´t fill the expectations, because he find it hard to please Baba.  

Baba is another important character in the book. He is Amir´s father. He is described as a large man with “curly brown hair” and a “black glare.” We get a negative impression of Baba in the beginning. He seems like a strict man, that is very hard on Amir at times, at least from what Amir describes. He has strong morals, and strong views on how Amir, as a boy, should act and what he should do, which is completely opposite of who Amir is. He also seems hard to pleace. There is an example where Amir want him to read a story, but he does not take him seriously. Rahim khan described Baba as “the most self centered man he knows,” bacuse he always expected suten think OF amir, that he would be tougher and braver, like Hassan. He also seems hard to please-

Baba is rich and successful man, who is highly respected in Kabul. There is also a legend of him fighting a bear. (One thing we admire Baba for is that he uses his money to help his community and for instance build an orphanage, which he is about to do in the beginning of the book. Although we get a negative impression of him, we see that he is truly a nice and caring guy. We see it in how he treats Hassan. Example

Baba is not a bad person, he is just strict, and have not been so lucky in life (father killed, losing his wife.

Hassan is in many ways the hero of the story, and the most important character in the book, next to Amir. Hassan is first described as “a Chinese doll” by Amir, from his perpective which says more about Amir, and how he sees Hassan. I felt like, from that description, that he sees him like a doll without feelings, not a real human being. What we get to know about Hassan is that he is Ali´s son. Ali is Baba´s servant, who has much of the same relationship to Baba, as Hassan has to Amir. Their like brothers, and are, even though they don´t say it out loud, each other best friend. Hassan and Ali, contrary to Amir and Baba, are poor and lives in a little mud hut on Baba´s estate and works at servant. Even though he and Amir are really different, they do have in common that they both have no mother. Hassan´s mother had fled a few days after he was born, and Amirs died

Hassan is very loyal to Amir, and very accepting to how Amir treats him badly. He would do anything for him, if he asked, even eat dirt, and he would rather rub a pomegranate in his face then throw it at Amir. He genuinely cares about Amir, and deeps down seem to know that Amir cares about him to, even though he doesn´t show it at times. He is also brave, and d stand up for Amir when he needs him to. Because he is so brave and loyal, he gets prayse from baba, which is where the jealousy of Amir come in. Baba also seems to have a soft-spot for Hassan, and treats him better then most Hazaras treat their servant. Baba alwaysways remembering his birthday, paying for his lip operation and ext.

The most important event in the book, and also the biggest turning point is when Hassan is raped by a boy named Assef. This happened after a kite-running competions that its costume in Afganistan, and something both the boys have looked foreward to. After Hassan ran after a kite he was corned by Assef and his friends and raped while Amir watches. Amir does not do anything to help Hassan. He pretends like he didn´t see it. This happened in the alley Amir refers to in the very beginning, when I talk about the moment that made him who he is. This is important because the entire book it is clear that the main character has a huge guilt that follows him throughout the book, that he barely can deal with. This is an obvious inner conflict Amir faces throughout the book, with himself, and he constantly faces those inner demons, and is filled with guilt and regrets.

Assef, the boy that raped Hassan, is another important character in the book, because he is the villain, a static character that I truly disliked through the entire book. He is described as half German, with blue eyes, which makes him different himself from other Afghan-people. Maybe that is why he has such a hate for Hazara people? Assef´s views and attitude toward Pashtuns is similar to people like Hitler. Is it a coincidence that the author made him half German? When we think we are done with Assef he returns at the very end.

Another important event in the book, is when Baba and Amir flee from Afghanistan to America. This event marks a change Amir and Baba´s life, when they have to leave everything they know.

In the middle of the book, we are in the late 70s, and the Russians invade Afghanistan, and Baba and Amir flees. They go through quite a trouble trying to cross the border over to Pakistan. We get to see what a though and caring character Baba is, in practice. He risks his life when a Russian soldier tries to rape a woman that is fleeing herself. Baba and Amir manage to cross safely, and fly over to America, which is the start of Amir´s story in America. He now lives in Fremont, California, and we are introduced to the close afghan community in America, that all are trying to find their place in the new community. Amir and Baba are now poorer and are part of another social status then they were when they lived in Afghanistan. Baba doesn´t adapt well to his new life, but both him and Amir finds a part of their home at the Afghan fleamarket.

The last part over the book Amir goes back to Afghanistan after getting a letter from Rahim Khan, and we are back at the very beginning of the book. Amir goes back to find an Afghanistan in quote on quote, “rubble and beggers.” He also finds a sick Rahim Khan that tells him about what happened to Hassan, that he had found him married and with a child, a son named Sohrab. Rahim goes on to tell him that Hassan was killed by the Taliban, him and his wife, and that his son is at a orphanage, and Amir has to go and get them.

The books climax is when Amir has to go and try to find Sohrab.

He goes back to Kabul, and realices that the Afganistan he knew id gone.

The Kite Runner is a book that have many themes. It is coming-of-age story when we follow Amir from a young age, and we see him change and grow up, until is an adult man. It is also a book about change, and adapting to change, like when Amir and Baba moved to America. We also see change and adapting when Amir return to “the new” Afghanistan, when he has to behave and dress a new way in order to fit in.

The book is also mainly about redemption, and Amir´s quest to redeem himself because of the tremendous guilt he felt regarding Hassan, and not standing up for him when I he needed him the most. But, is not only Amir that are trying to repay for what he did, but also Baba. He tries to repaid what he did, which also tied to guilt. This is another turning point in the book because here it is revealed that Hassan really is Amir´s half-brother.

There is a parallel between Amir and Hassan, and Baba and Ali. Baba is similar to Amir in the way that he betrayed his friend, that he looks at as a brother, Ali, when he slept with his wife. Amir betrayed Hassan when he didn´t help him or stand up for him when he got raped. Also, both Amir and Baba feel a tremendous guilt, and uses their entire life trying to redeem themselves and making up for it.

I also think that The book shows a lot of love and tension between father and son. Amir is constantly trying to win Baba´s love. What Amir does not know, and we find out in the last part of the book, is that Hassan is actually Baba´s son. It also shows Baba and him trying to have a relationship with Hassan, who is also his son, without actually saying anything.

Hassan´s rape can be seen as a literary device, as an allegory for what happened to Afghanistan when Russia invaded. Amir in this case represents the international community who stood by and watched what happened. We watched Russia “rape” Afghanistan.

(stop and think)

Hosseini uses a lot of repetition in the book. Phrases like “there is a way to be good again,” and “for you a thousand times over” are repeated a few times throughout the book. They are quotes of great importants. Repeating them helps emphasizing and really makes us as readers remember the quote. “There is a way to be good again” is an important quote because it is what motivates and brings hope to the main character that is on a quest to redeem himself.

Also, in one paragraph in the book the word “screaming” is repeated , when it is a quite intense moment in the book. Hosseini repeats surten word at surten moments, like when Amir is in trouble to really

There is also a lot of imagery in the book like that gives a picture of, for intence, pain, like “it felt like chest explode,”and ” my throat would rip” ext.

One thing that I also noticed is that there are very little female characters in the book. Maybe this Is a reflection on how women are view in Afghanistan? Male is dominant in their culture. The first female character does not appear until Amir arrives to America. This is also something to think about. Did the author do this intentionally.

Symbol: Hassan is THE kite runner, the book its literally named after him.

(stop and think)

Sohrab -his name.

I did like the book, even though it was slow in some places, and fast paced in others. All the bigger moments in the book happened in the very beginning, or at the very end. The book did move me because of the strong story about the unbreakable friendship of Amir and Hassan, and forgiveness. The book is both tragic and honest, and a little graphic at some times for my taste, so I was uncomfortable reading at some points in the book. On the other end, I keep asking myself would the book be that good if it weren´t set in Afganistan? If the plot was set another place it would probably not be a as successful book.

This book made me sad, angry and happy which I think are the criteria for a good book, that it makes you feel all the emotions. It also introduced me to an Afghanistan that I did not know, and it was strange to realise how familiar and normal the place seemed like. The only Afghanistan that I know are the one that people are fleeing from, and at war. This book shows that there truly is a way redeem our self if we made a mistake, don´t take people close to you for granted, and if you do make such a mistake, there is a way «to be good again.»

Intro:

In the book “The Kite Runner” by Khaled Hosseini we are introduced to the world of Amir, who grew up in Afghanistan

Avsluntning:

This book shows that there truly is a way «to be good again. »

The Hate U Give

The Hate U Give

Thoughts:

Why name him One-Fitheen

  • Dehumanising him, because of his inhumane actions
  • He is an police officer
  • First thing she remembered, her father told her “remember the badge-number”

How does her attitude change toward police?

  • Starts with fear/respect (chapter two)

Chapter 6, when they arrive to the police station.

  • Anger/hate (when he might get away with it) p.121 “why haven´t they arrested him?” “He killed Khalil”
  • How dpes carlos affect it: At first Starr generalizes cops, talk with him when he said he couldn answar whether or not he would have killed Khalil,

but after he said he would not have him, conversation on the stairs chapter 14, he sees that not every cop is like One-Fiftheen

page. 285 show a frustration aswell

Has the book changed my views:

  • The book has made the enire situation feel closer and more personal because of the way the book is written. We get Starrs, a frustrate vitnes´ perspective and thoughts, so everything feels so close. Is like we are Starr because it is written in first person point of view. We feel her pain, her thought become ours. We get offended when she gets offended, we get frustaded when she gets frustraded.
  • Is different then just reading about it in the news, in the book we get an actual person point of view, that makes it feel like it almost happened to us.
  • On the other hand, made me feel like the situation in it self, the problem, is more hopples, which is how black americans must feel aswell regarding the situation
  • Se how unfair and the realitiy

Thought

I liked the book because of its topic, and the way it was written. It was very realistic, and written in a way that makes everything more personal and it feel closer. The book also made me more aware over the issue black americans face on an everyday basis, like social rasicm including police brutality. and to , and gave a different perspective to this entire sitaution

Relate to the characters, young girl, going through things, but …

Aha-moments p. 168-169, a system designed against them

Divisions Increased in American Politics

Writing Assignment

Task 1

Divisions Increased in American Politics

The text published on the Atlantic talks about the political division in American politics today, and how the division have increased since Trump was elected president, and reasons behind it. I am now going to look at some of the language features and literary devices used in the text, and what effects they have to this text.

Firstly, the author uses ethos when referring to statistic throughout the text and lending authority from people. For instance, in the fourth paragraph, the writer says that “According to Jocelyn Kelle, an associate director at Pew., the report shows that even things that are ostensibly not about politics are subject to political divides […]” The writer lend authority from someone with knowledge about the topic. The author also says “a Pew Research Center report states.,” and “Pew´s data shows a slight decline in the share of Democrats and Republicans who say they have a “very unfavourable” view of the opposing party […]” The author refers to the Pew Reaserch Center throughout the texts. This makes the text more believable and convincing, because the writer refers to sources and people that knows what their talking about.

The ethos is also increased because of the author´s formal language. The author uses for instance words like “ostensibly” and “alienating,” and says “they have an unfavourable view of the other side […]” and “his own defiance of the scientific consensus will intensify scepticism […]” This makes the writer more believable, the content in this text taken more seriously because of the language they use.

Lastly, we also see use of alliteration used in the text, even though this is usually not a typical language device in texts like these. In the second paragraph the author writes “polarized political time.” Later when summarizing the author writes “race, religion” after each other. Also, later in the text the author writes “more pressure people will face to adopt partisan viewpoints […]” This gives the text a rhythm, but It also more importantly enforces the words that starts with the same sounds, and make them stick out and it helps highlight them in a way. This enforces the topic in the text, and makes us pay more attention to otherwise quite formal text with a lot of statistics.

I think that political division is more of an issue today than it was back in 2016, because people seem to be stronger in their viewpoints and opinions. There is an even bigger clash in values, on how people think America should be that was brought to light after Trump was elected, and there is now a clearer division. Also, people are not afraid to say what they mean and finds others with the same meanings and opinion, and creates a sodality with them. As the text suggests, because of this they are not challenged on their views because they sorrowed themselves with people of the same views and values. Trump as also manages to separate the people even more than before, and now people are more enforced in their own opinions because there is more of a clear collision between the parties.

To summarize, is the text from the Atlantic is a good informative text, that does what an informatic text should do and that is to inform. The authors use of ethos and sources makes the text educative and informative giving us a lot of information and statistics, and combine with use of formal language makes the text trust-worthy and gives it all a professional impression.

Source:

https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2017/10/trump-partisan-divide-republicans-democrats/541917/

Term test: English Social studies Spring 2020

Term Test

May 12, 2020

Task 2a

Referring to the lyrics by Tom Russell below, discuss the political conflict that has developed over the proposed building of a wall between the USA and Mexico

Who´s Gonna Build Your Wall?

«Who´s gonna build your wall?» is the title of the 2007 song written by Tom Russell almost ten years before the wall between the United States and Mexico became one of Trump´s most repeated and most famous campaign promises. This wall has not only been controversial, but it has also caused a lot of political conflicts since 2016. I am now going to look at some of those conflicts that have developed over this, referring to the lyrics in the song by Russell.

Firstly, let us begin with looking at the first issue the lyrics of the song addresses, “who is going to build the wall?” and who is going to pay for the wall. Trump himself said “I would build a great wall, and nobody builds walls better than me, believe me, and I build them very inexpensively.” He claimed that the total cost of the wall would be around 10 billion to 12 billion dollars, but engineers and factcheckers estimates that the price will be a lot higher. Mitch McConnell, a senate majority leader, estimated the wall to cost between 12 billion and 15 billion dollars. The first 650 milos of fencing costed the government over 7 billion already. The President did always insist that Mexico would pay, but the Mexican President, Enrique Pena Nieto, insisted that they will not. Now Trump has accepted that the U.S. taxpayers will have to pay the initial funding for the wall.

On the 22 of December 2018 the federal government was for 35 day partly shutdown because the President insisted that he would veto any bill that did not include money, or more specifically 5.7 billion dollars, for funding the border wall. Democrats have been opposed to this for a long time leaving the republicans in the Senate without enough votes to get the legislation passed. Later in February 2019 Trump signed a declaration of National Emergency, saying that the situation at the border between the U.S. and Mexico is a crisis requiring money that would be allocated from other purposes. Then Congress passed a resolution to overturn the order, but Trump again vetoed the resolution.

Later in the lyrics says that «[Russell] got 800 miles of open border Right outside [his] door.” This can be linked to another problem in the development of the building of the wall, which is the impact on land and private properties that it has and will cause.  The terrain is a mix of federal and private land. The construction itself of the wall could also cause environmental damage including such things as habitat destruction and habitat fragmentation that would harm the wildlife and endangered species such as black bears and bighorn sheep. Also, parts of the planned wall will be built through private property owned, which will affect property owners in southern Texas will lose significant portions of their land. The current wall is snaking through private properties.

Tom Russell himself lives in El Pas-Juarez, which is right on the border. When asked about the wall he pointed out what he said in the song; “They’re gonna build a barrier, and most of the cheap labour along the border is by illegals. Who’s gonna build the wall?” He also continued to says later in the lyrics of the song that;

Now I ain’t got no politics So don’t lay that rap on me Left wing, right wing, up wing, down wing I see strip malls from sea to shining sea It’s the fat cat white developer Who’s created this whole damn squall It’s a pyramid scheme of dirty jobs And who’s gonna build your wall

He said in an interview explaining this quote “That [politics] just doesn’t interest me. I turn my gun barrels on the people I dislike, which are white developers who have used these people and then are the first to jump on the bandwagon and say, ‘Yeah, we gotta get rid of them now.'” The lyrics also makes a point that if “uncle Sam sends the illegals home Who’s gonna build the wall? » and goes on to list jobs that immigrants often do that Americans do not. This addresses the conflict of race, and discrimination against the immigrant that comes to America, and are useful to the American society.

We are now in 2020. nearly two years into Trump´s presidency, and there is no big “beautiful wall,” as Trump promised back in 2016. Mexico refused to pay for it, now the American people has to, and Trump is not giving up on the promise. The song is almost scarily ahead of its time considered that it is written in 2007. One line particularly left an impact, and made me think. That was the line; «But as I travel around this big old world There´s one thing that I most fear It´s a white man in a golf shirt.” I  could not help but think about all the pictures I have seen of Trump wearing a golf shirt, and all the damage he still can do being the President of the most powerful nation in the world.

Sources:

Lyrics by Russell, T. (2019, September 26). “Who’s Gonna Build Your Wall?” Retrieved 01.10.2019 from https://genius.com/Tom-russell-whos-gonna-build-your-wall-lyrics

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-37243269 (12.05.20)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trump_wall (12.05.20)

https://www.npr.org/2008/09/07/94325378/tom-russell-whos-gonna-build-your-wall (12.05.20)

Review of “Of Mice and Men”

Review of “Of Mice and Men”

«A few miles south of Soledad» we met two character who will show us the importance of friendships, dreams and aspirations. Published in 1937 Of Mice and Man is a novella written by the Nobel prize-winning author John Steinbeck. The book gives us a look at the society and mindset of people in the 1930s America, while following the unique relationship between two friends who shares one dream.

The story is set, and written during the great depression, and shows the relationship between George and Lennie who are two migrant workers during a time with huge unemployment. We first meet them in the woods running away from something that happened at their previous workplace, which is not revealed until later on in the book, and we see their unique friendship as they find a job and form other acquaintances with other people at their new workplace. The two characters are a huge contrast to each other, and complement each other well. George is almost like a caretaker to poor Lennie who is too strong for his own good. The story ends with an unexpected twist that left me mourning for days.

Of Mice and men is a really wonderful and simple reading experience. In only six chapters Steinbeck are able to elaborately describe the surroundings, and also at the same time show a relationship that the readers cannot help but fall in love with. The friendship between the two character is so unique and wonderful and it is what drives the book. We see the bond between George and Lennie, and how George will not leave him despite him ruining both their chances of getting a job. We also see George dreaming about what he wants in life, for both him and Lennie. He says, for instance, “We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us.” I love that George includes Lennie in his dream, which says a lot about their relationship. It becomes apparent that this is quite a unique situation during those times for migrant workers, to have someone else, which also George himself points out “We got a future. We got somebody talk to that gives a damn about us.” Lennie responds to this “Because I got you to look after me, and you got me to look after you.”

Also, George and Lennie as characters are genius. My first impression of them was that they almost have a brotherly relationship where George is the bigger brother taking care of Lennie. I cannot address enough how much I fell in love with their relationship. The way George shows he cares for Lennie even though at some points he points out that he is a burden. He says for instance “I want you to stay with me Lennie. Jesus Christ, somebody´d shoot you for a coyote if you were by yourself.” It shows that he cares about him. Steinbeck’s story telling is wonderful and affecting in so many ways. He also has a wonderful and very clever sense of humour that made me smile throughout the book.

Steinbeck is also able to get us attach to the characters, feeling bad, feeling sympathy and care for them, especially Lennie. He also makes us love George for being such a good friend to him and appreciate him. We cheer for the characters throughout the book, rooting for their dreams and friendship, which makes the ending have even more of an impact. I also love Steinbeck’s small indications and use of foreshadowing that indicates what we might expect to happen without revealing what will happen, which also drives the story forward.  The ending is still shocking and surprising.

All in all, is a lovely book about a lovely friendship. Each chapter also reveals something new about the character in the book, and every character represents a struggle in society, which makes the book even more important. I do recommend it, the book made me smile, laugh, cry and also it left he shocked and surprise. A very good read for someone who want a short but filling adventure, and just a feel-good read. But I warn you that it will leave you, when finished, with a not so feel-good feeling.

(The following text are notes I made in preparation for an oral conversation we had about the book)

Of Mice and Men Conversation:

(You should prepare your arguments/thoughts, and back these up with examples and quotes from the book.)

Assignment: Compare the death of Candy’s dog in Chapter Three to the death of Lennie in Chapter Six. Note similarities and differences between the two. Cite your references to the novel.

Similarities

“He ain´t good to you, Candy. An´he ain´t good to himself.” Carlston

Candy said “I been around him so much I never notice how he stinks.” This ties in with Georges ´relationship with Lennie, how he is a caretaker, and takes care of him despite all that he has done, and while he sacrifices a lot for him.

Candy is also very proud of the dog, describes him very proudly, like George did to Lennie. In the text it said that “He said proud, “You wouldn´t think it to look at him now, but he was the best damn sheep dog I ever seen.”

1. The way Carlson describes how he is going to kill the dog is similar to how George kills him at the end. Carlson said in chapter three, the fourth page that “If you was to take him out and shoot him right in the head.” George in chapter six, the page before the last “And George raised the gun and steadied it, an brought the muzzle of it close to the back of Lennie´s head.”

2. The difference however that George, the caretaker of Lennie, kills Lennie, Carlson does. Carlson said in chapter three, the fourth page “I´ll shoot him for you. Then it won´t be you that does it.”Almost pushes him. Candy was “pushed” to kill his dog, he didn´t even think about him as a problem or considered killing him until that moment. The chapter keeps mentioning that he is “nervous”. It says that “he scratches the white stubble whiskers on his cheeks nervously.”

3. Even THOUGH Carlson did not kill both, However, both killings where with the same gun, or luger. Carlson “luger,” that is first mentioned in chapter three, the fifth page. When “Candy said hopefully, “you ain´t got no gun.” And Carlson said “The hell I ain´t. GoT a luger. It won´t hurt him.” And I fill like that is a connection between the to killings.  In chapter six, on the third page, it says “He reaches in his side pocket and brought out Carlson´s luger.”

4.  In chapter three, on the fifth page, “He led the dog into darkness.” Shows that Lennie got a better more generous killing, because he was killed by some who cared for him, whil Carlson did not care for the dog or have a connection with the dog, so the killing was more ungenerous. George struggled to kill Lennie because he cared about him. Through the last pages in chapter five it mentions how his “shivering, his hands are shaking” he is struggling to kill him, While Carlson just took the dog outside and shot him.

5. After the dogs killing “Carlson said casually, “Curley been in yet?” Like nothing happened, distancing himself from the situation, feeling no remorse or upset about it. This is similar to his reaction or attitude when Lennie after was killed in chapter six when he said “Now what the hell ya suppose is eatin`them two guys?” It did not affect him. He did not care, and he did not see how they could care about Lennie.

7. Both killings were a quick decision made by the same of group people to decide to kill the dog, and to go after Lennie with the intention of killing him (slim, Carlson with the precence of Candy George) Only difference were that Curly was present at the decion to kill Lennie.

6. The dog was dead to him , Candy distanced himself from him when he realised he was going to die. Chapter three, on the fifth page “He did not even look down at the dog at all. He lay back on his bunk and crossed his arms behind9 his head and stared at the ceiling.” While Candy turns away himself from it, and the situation, George does not, he confronts it, but asks Lennie to turn away when he kills him. “Look down there acrost the river.”  

Chapter three, on the eight page“The door opened and Lennie and Carlson came in togheter.” So, Carlson went out with the dog, and came in with Lennie. A connection between the to two.

Laslty after the dogs killing, when Lennie comes back in he asks George to tell him about the dream in chapter three on th ninth page. He does, and in chapter six on the last to-three pages that is the last thing he tells to Lennie before he shots him.

Differences

The dog was killed privately, and George was killed out of mercy.

Candy couldn´t do it himself

Candy was “pushed” to kill him

“Candy looked helplessly at him, because Slim´s opinion were law”

“Candy looked for help from face to face”

In dept: English Lit. and culture

In dept analysis of

A Tale of Two Cities

By Charles Dickens

A Tale of Two Cities is a historical novel written by British author Charles Dickens, and published in 1859. The novel received mixed reviews by the public when it was first published, but is today loved because of its characters and storyline, and is one of Dickens most famous books. The book takes place before Dickens time, but was inspired to write the story because of his fascination of the French Revolution.

The novel is set from the period of 1775 until around 1793, leading up and during the French Revolution. We exchange between the two cities London and Paris, hence the title of the book A Tale of Two Cities. The first part of the novel we meet Lucie Manette, a young girl who have thought her whole life that she is an orphan. She, with the help of Mr. Lorry, travels to Paris and reunites with her father who have been a prisoner at the Bastille for many years, and is now a shoemaker. Five years later, the now happy family are witnesses at the trial of the French aristocrat under a false identity, Charles Darney, who falls in love with her. Someone else that also falls in love with her is Darney´s former servant Sydney Carlton. Lucie ends up marring Darney. While all of this is happening, we see how the situation in France escalates. In the last part of the book the French revolution breaks out, and Darney gets arrested and are sentences to death. Sydney ends up trading places with Darney out of his love for Lucie.

The book starts with the famous line: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way.”  By using a lot of contrasts when describing the time, the book is set in, Dickens highlights the differences and the issues that reflects the time. It makes us as readers curious. The sentences also tease what the book is about.

The title of the book is pretty straight forward. As I mentioned, It is a story placed in two cities. The title also suggests contrast, and that the story is about contrast and people living different lives, and different situations.

“Though gloomy vaults where the light of day had never shone, past hideous doors of dark dens and cages, down cavernous flight of steps […]” (p.247.)

Theme/message

The themes we see in the book are class and class differences, for instance on page 118. There we are introduced to Charles Darney´s rich uncle, Marquis St Evrémonde, who is an aristocrat. We see how bad he treats those below him in class, even killing a child and not showing any sympathy because he is above them in class, even calling them “dogs.” The conflicts between the lower and upper class is what’s start the French revolution, and is therefore quite central in this story.

The book is also about sacrifice. Sydney sacrificed himself because he loves Lucie and knows his sacrifices will bring her and Darney happiness. “It is a far, far better thing I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to than I have ever known.” (p. 445.) Sydney´s sacrifices can also be seen as a message, and moral theme of the book. Love is making sacrifices. We see this also when Doctor Manette accepted and supporter Lucie and Darney´s marriage despite knowing Darney´s true identity.

Structure:

The book is divided into three parts, where each part has its own “main story.” Each part is a continuation of the other. The only differences is that some time has passed between each part. This helps speeding things along. We see the character through time while the French revolution is building up. By dividing the story in parts, we, the readers, get only the highlight of the story and information. Also, by doing this we only get scenes that are relevant. The book is mainly set from 1775, when Lucie is reunited with her father, until around 1793 when Carlton is executed. The book is written chronological, but it goes back in time when key events earlier comes to light or are revealed. For instance, when Doctor Manette was in prison. The book goes back in time when the latter that is found in his prison cell at the Bastille is read out loud at Darney´s trial. Because there are two main settings, Dickens is able to incorporate multiple storylines happing around the same time. We also get to see the contrast, and social problem each city or country faces. Dickens critics both places throughout the book.

A Tale of Two Cities is not only thickly plotted, but is also crowded with character, one of them being, as I mention earlier, one of the most central characters Lucie Manette. When we first meet her character, she is seventeen years old. She is described as kind-hearted and forgiving. She shows love to Sydney, and ask Darney to not judge him. She says for instance “remember how strong we are in our happiness, and how weak he is in his misery” (p. 237) when telling Darney about that he should show more sympathy towards Sydney. It shows that she has a lot sympathy herself, and that she has a lot of compaction and understanding for people. She is often referred to as “the golden thread” because she binds her family and everyone together. She is a static character that remains the same throughout the novel.

Another central character in the book is Doctor Manette, Lucie´s father, who was for eighteen years wrongfully imprisoned in France at the Bastille, and later reunited with her daughter. As a result of all those years in prison he is virtually insane. He cares about his daughter Lucie, a lot, and wants nothing but her happiness. We see that when Darney confesses his love for Lucie to him. “She is everything to me; more to me than suffering, more to me than wrong […]” (p.153)

Also, another central character we meet is Charles Darney. He is the protagonist in the story. A lot of the story revolves around him. He is secretly a French aristocrat by birth. Darney is daring and rebellious, filled with good morals. He shows a rebellious side when saying directly to his infamous wicked uncle that he does not want to be a part of the social injustice in France, “I must do, to live, what others of my countrymen, even with nobility at their backs, may have to do some day – work.” (p.140) He recognises the injustice towards the lower classes, and do not want to be a part of the system that oppresses them. He says to his uncle, “This property and France are lost to me.” “I renounce them.” (p. 139) He is also a loyal man who proves his courage when he made his decision to return to Paris to save his former servant who have been imprisoned.

Sydney Carlton is also one of the protagonists in this story. He is described as looking a lot like Darney, but less successful. He is also an alcoholic, “You remember a certain famous occasion when I was more drunk than – than usual?” (p. 233) Carlton is described as a very dark and non-caring character, and is not very likable at first, “When he cared to talk, he talked well; but, the cloud of caring for nothing which overshadowed him with such fatal darkness, was very rarely pierced by the light within him.” (p.168) He also seems to have no prospects in his life, and seems to have given up pursuing happiness for himself, because he does not think he deserves it, even saying to Lucie that she deserves better then him. When he confesses to Lucie the challenges he faces in his life and Lucie asks why he does not change it, he replies “It is too late for that. I shall never be better than I am.” (p.169) He seems like a person who have given up on himself. But he turns out to be the kindest and most caring character in the book. He shows the ultimate love for Lucie when sacrifices his own life to save Darney. After he confesses his love to Lucie he says, […] think now and then that there is a man who would give his life, to keep a life you love beside you!” (p.173) The very last thing that is heard being said by Sydney to Lucie at the end of the book, is “a life you love.” He respites does words, conforming this promise to give his life to make sure she is happy.

Other characters worth mentioning are Madame Defarge and Monsieur Defarge, the leaders of the rebellions. Madame Defarge is the antagonist in the story. She is a very hateful character.  But, we gain sympathy when learning what made Madame Defarge such a bloodthirsty creature and her reasons for being so hateful. It is revealed later in the book that Madame Defarge´s sister was raped, and died because of it, by Darney´s uncle. This is the reason for her hate towards Darney and his family. Her character is the most dynamic one in the novel. In the beginning she just seems like this calm, kind woman, who only knits. Throughout the book she becomes more sinister, revealing sides to herself that we would have never thought existed.

A Tale of Cities is written in third person point of view, and the narrator is all-seeing and all-knowing. What this does to the story is that it we get the feelings and thoughts of the many various characters, and it gives a wider rang perspective of historical events that is happening in London and Paris at the time. It also allows us to get some distance to some of chilling description of what we see in the book.

Because we know, before reading the book what will happen in the future regarding the French revolution, Dickens´ use of foreshadowing helps heighten the impacts of things and events that we know will happen. We as readers know that we cannot avoid them, because we cannot change the dark event of history. An example from the book is “The time was to come, when that wine too would be spilled on the street-stones, and when the stain of it would be red upon many there.”  (p. 29) This foreshadows something that happens later in the story, a bloody and brutal fight. Another use of foreshadowing Is in the first chapter of part two, when Darney is in trial, the court notices the resembles between the two, and our attention is drawn to that, “[…] they would hardly have thought the two were so alike.” (p.83) He is acquitted, and the jury is not willing to convict him because they cannot be certain whether or not is was him, or if he has been mistaken for somebody else. This foreshadows what will happen later in the book, when Sydney saves Darney´s life a second time, because we now see how strong the psychical resemble is between the two. We also see a noble side of Darney, when he helps him, which hints that he will later show more of his noble side. What foreshadowing does to the story is build up anticipation, and gives us readers small hints of what might happen later on.

Dickens is well known for his use of humour and irony. This is also present in A Tale of Two Cities as well. In chapter four, page 14, we see use of irony when a character in the book, Mr Lorry, asks Doctor Monette, twice when he found him “I hope you care to live,” and Doctor Monette replies “I can´t say.” This makes the otherwise tone sentimental and horrified tone of the novel, sarcastic a humorous as well. We also see use of the use sarcasm. An example is “Mr Carton, who had so long sat looking at the ceiling of the court, changed neither his place nor his attitude even in this excitement.” (p.83) This is from when Sydney is about to witness in Darney´s trial. What this does to the story is that it gives the story a nice breath of fresh air to the otherwise heavy, and sometime, horrific plot. It also makes the story more humane.

Among the other language and literary devices, we can also see the use of simile in the book. We see that in chapter five, page 28, when he writes “shattered like a walnut-shell,” when describing a cask of wine being dropped and broken outside the door of Monsieur and Madame Defarge´s wine shop. “I shall sleep like a child,” (p. 261) is another example meaning to have a good and tranquil sleep. What this does to the text is giving words an added layer of meaning to the, and gives us the reader an mental image to the description.

In addition, there are symbols used throughout the book. When the house of Darney uncle, Marquis St Evrémonde ´s , a wicked and disliked aristocrat, was torched on fire ( p.263) the fire could symbolize the fall of the aristocracy. Another example of the use of symbols is “The time was to come, when that wine too would be spilled on the street-stones, and when the stain of it would be red upon many there.” (p. 29) The wine can symbolize the blood the would be spilled later on this very street.  “The sun was red” or “with a red upon it that the sun had never given, and would never take away.” (p.303) The colour red here can also symbolize blood, but also death. Another example is in this paragraph: “It was a heavy mass of building, that chateau of Monsieur the Marquis, with a larger stone court-yard before it, and two stone seeps of staircase meeting in a stone terrace before the principal door. A stony business altogether, with heavy stone balustrades, and stone urns, and stone flowers and stone faces of men […]” (p.132) Here Dickens repeats “stone” when describing the house of Marquis St Evrémonde. It enforces the thought of him as a unsympathetic and heartless person with no feelings, and this house and the description is a symbol of that. It reflects him, and maybe other aristocrats like him. By using all these symbols, it gives a different impact, and gives an additional and deeper meaning to the description. It also creates a more visual and imagery.

Lastly, alliteration is also heavily used by Dickens as a language device throughout the book. “Here they come, fast, fierce, and furious!” (p. 113) is one example, but there are many more, such as: “It was the rush and rain of roar…” (p. 29,) “dead darkness” on page 142, “The fountain in the village flower unseen and unheard […]” p.142 and “Fed and freed” p .142, and lastly “There was no pause, no pity, no peace,” p. 315. These are just a few of the many example of Dickens´ use of alliteration in A Tale of Two Cities. By repeating the same sounds, it gives the novel a nice flow, and makes it more pleasant to read. It creates rhythm, and makes the language almost poetic.

All in all, the book is a well written roller coaster, that with its thick plot and many characters has left a lasting impression on me. Through Dickens´ use of literary and language devices it made the book a very well-written book, with a well thought out story, where many sides are represented and seen. No wonder it is a classic. We can see links between the society in the book, set in a different time, with the Victorian society that Dickens lived in. The novel can also be seen as an indirect critic of this society, so just likes its language, it has various layers of meaning. I admire Dickens ‘well thought out use of word and expressions. Every word is well thought out. People do not write books like this no more.

Sources:

A Tale of Two Cities. Dickens, Charles. 1859. Puffin Classics.         

https://www.sparknotes.com/lit/twocities/characters/ (23.02.20)

https://www.sparknotes.com/lit/twocities/plot-analysis/ (23.02.20)

https://literary-devices.com (24.02.20)

In dept: English social studies

Corruption in America

We live in a world where we are believed that the biggest criminals are the ones in prison, the ones who have nothing, and are on the very bottom in our society. The outcasts, the ones that “looks like” typical criminals. The ones that do not belong to the «clean, black-tie wearing» elite that runs our communities and countries. But some will say that the biggest criminals are actually the ones on the very top of our societies. In this text I will look more closely at corruption in American politics, both the corruption we see and the ones we do not see. I will also look closely at examples of a corruption scandal, and injustice in the American political system that almost encourages corruption within the system.

But, before going more in dept on corruption particularly in American politics we need to understand the concept of corruption, and what it is. Usually when we think of corruption we often might associate it with third world countries, and underdeveloped countries. They are usually the ones highly associated with corruption and corrupted leaders, but it is important to remember that does not mean that other more developed nations are free from it. Political corruption is a universal concept, but corruption in the United States is a different experience then from the developing world. Is subtler, and not as obvious. We are throughout this text going to look more closely at some reports and investigations on the issue of corruption in one of the most powerful nations in the world, the United States of America.

A corruption scandal that really changed Americans look on politics and politicians is the very famous Watergate scandal. This was a scandal that happened during the presidential election in 1972. The scandal, named after the hotel where the first crime took place, included the president of united states at the time, Richard Nixon, who was running for re-election against democrat George McGovern. It was a security guard by the name of Frank Willis who discovered clues that former agents from the FBI and CIA had broken into the Democratic National Committee headquarters, and the office of George McGovern months before the election. Secret documents were stolen, and they were even caught wiretapping phones and listened to phone lines. The whole scandal began on June 17, 1972, when several burglars were in the Democratic National Committee offices. It turned out to not be an ordinary robbery. They were connected to President Richard Nixon´s re-election campaign.

When the agents were found it was later discovered that Nixon himself was involved as well, and that he took aggressive steps helping the agents cover up the crimes. It turned out that he might have even hired them as well.  He stole information and abused his presidential power to try to stay in office and remain in power. This was a clear abuse of power by the Nixon administration.

During the course of the Watergate hearings by the Senate there were also uncovered secret White House tapes by Nixon, that uncovered the truth about his presidency, and him himself. The tapes proved that he was involved in covering up the scandal, but they also revealed that he was trying to cover up an illegal attempt in 1968 to try and sabotage the start of peace talks to end the Vietnam War. He had told his staff to try to steal a report by breaking into the Brookings Institution. Nixon said quote on quote “get in and get those files. Blow the safe and get it.” The public did not know about this until 1997 when The Washington Post and Newsweek transcribed portions of the tapes. It was also revealed that another reason he wanted them to steal the report was because Nixon suspected that the former president Lyndon B. Johnson also tried to sabotage Nixon´s election chances. Nixon said they should steal it “to blackmail him.”

The tapes revealed far more then only the cover ups, but also Nixon as a person. He was heard saying not so favourably things about Indira Gandhi and disrespecting her calling her a “witch” and a “bitch.” He also went on to say that “the Indians are bastard anyway.” The tapes showed Nixon´s true colours, which was scary to think about, because this was a man who had a huge amount of power. 

The Washington Post had a big part in exposing this. They exposed this to the public, and proved that Nixon was not to be trusted. They also shed a light on underlying corruption that the people did not think exited. As a result of this scandal Nixon chose to resign from office on August 9, 1972. The reason being that he did not want to be impeached, and charged with the crimes. The Congress could not impeach Nixon if the decided to resign. Nixon was then “saved” by his successor, President Gerald R. Ford, who pardon him. He said he would pardon him “for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from July 20, 1969, and through August 9, 1974.” The reason he did it was, Ford said, to spare the country and prolonged discord for Watergate because he said Nixon would not get a fair trial an because “Nixon and his loved ones have suffered enough.” It is important to remember that Ford had been chosen as Nixon´s vice president in the middle of the Watergate scandal after Spiro Agnew resigned in December 1973.  This raised some eyebrows, and people suspected that Nixon might have made a promise of a pardon in exchange for the post. This charge President Ford denied. But, it is no denying that it was an unjust act. Nixon did not get to pay for his crimes, and avoided facing the consequences because of his former position and relations.

The press, in the elections that followed after the revelation, started focusing their attention more on unmasking presidents and the presidential candidates, and what they might be hiding. Also, the congress became more suspicious. The legacy of Watergate lies in the minds of American voters. That is probably the reason why they do not seem to have as much trust in their government now. Now Americans seem to not seek candidates with government experience or the right set of policies, like we saw in the 2016 election, but instead a person they trust and believe in. It is easy to exploit this and take advantage of this mistrust the American people has to “typical politicians.” We see now that during campaign that the tactics are often to assert that their opponent is untrustworthy. This scandal changed American politics. Many Americans were led to question their leaders, and be more critical to the presidency. How come there is so much corruption still? 

According to the 2019 Corruption Perceptions index released by Transparency International the US hits a new low in the global corruption index, and has receives the lowest score in eight years. The reports show snapshot of the relative degree of corruption, and it does so by ranking countries and territories all over the world from zero, which is very corrupt, to a hundred, not corrupt, using over a dozen independent expert assessment and surveys to measure public sector corruption. The United States dropped to the score of 69 out of a hundred. This year Transparency International report that the analysis shows that corruption is more pervasive in the countries where a lot of money can flow freely into electoral campaigns, and also where government only listens to the wealthy and well-connected individuals. The reason why the US is scoring lower than last time, according to the Director of the U.S. office of Transparency International Gary Kalman, is because the «Weaknesses in [their] laws are being exploited by a growing list of bad actors at home and abroad.  From foreign despots to terror networks, drug cartels to human traffickers, some of the world’s most destructive forces are benefitting from gaps in U.S. law. » Personal corruption is the only type of corruption that we recognize and think is bad, but structural corruption is the one that is the biggest, and we do not always recognize right away. This can be anything from political donations from wealthy campaign donors that get influence on the politician but that is said to be protected by free speech. This is one of the gaps in the U.S. laws.

Lobbying as well, buying political influences, gives more influence to wealthy individuals and special interest groups on the government. Lobbying is being seen as being protected by the 1th amendment, that says: ​ “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press​; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”  But, what is the difference between corruption and lobbying? Even though there are some differences, both involves getting help from the public sector in exchange for some favours.

A study done by Princeton University where they questioned who really rules in America, they made a graph that showed the likelihood that congress would make law that is in the interest of the people. Ideally in a graph like this the graph would show that if for instance fifty present of the people supports an idea there will be a fifty-present chance of it becoming law and so on. You would think that America would be close to this ideal, but this graph shows that in America every law, despite how popular or how many people support it, it has a 30% chance of becoming an actual law. That means that the average American generally have no impact on congress. But the elites get their own graph or line, and that shows that they are more likely to have an impact than the average man.

There are various types of corruptions that can happen within a government. Misuse of power, money laundering, fraud in the voting system and bribery, but the most widespread and common practiced by on the governmental levels are secret businesses and exploitation of power, also as Gary Kalman said, weaknesses in the laws are being exploited, and also multiple corruption scandals. There has been in the U.S. a major national crisis every fifty years since 1827. Among them one in 1872, the Credit mobilier scandal that damaged many politicians’ careers. That scandal involved manipulations of contracts that was illegal, done by a construction and finance company. Also, another scandal in 1923 called the Teapot Dome scandal that was a bribery scandal involving President Warren G. Harding´s administration. They were convicted of accepting bribes from oil companies. Another one, as mentioned earlier, the probably most famous scandal in an American politics, the Watergate scandal from 1972 till 1974. There was also the alleged perjury of President Bill Clinton in 1998.

A more recent example of corruption though, but not as big as any of them mentioned, was in 2019 when republican Chris Collins, a U.S. Representative for the New York congressional districts, resign after pleading guilty to lying to the FBI, insider trading, security fraud and wire fraud. Both him and his son, Cameron Collins, were arrested in 2018 by the FBI charged with insider trading and giving false statements. He was also arrested on charges relating to his connection to the Australian biotech company Innate Immunotherapeutic. Collins was the company´s largest shareholder and a board member, which was a shocking to the public people, but is was well known within the government, and it even was something looked into previously by the ethics committee. Congressmen are not allowed to be compensated by a company, but there is no law preventing them from sitting on corporate boards. However, they are not allowed on non-public information or tip of families, which is what happened in this case.

After learning about a failed drug trial just minutes after, Collins called his son and shared private information ahead of the information of trial results becoming public. Then the son shared that information to others including passing on the information to his father-in-law Stephen Zarsky. Collins´ son then sold the stock and trading going on that information. According to the indictment Cameron sold 16,000 shares of the company when the markets in the US opened and continued to place orders totalling over almost 1,4 million shares over the week.

Other member of congress owned stocks in that company as well, but all of them claimed that they either sold their stock before the relevant dates or lost most of their investments when the stock press crated. Collins was then accused to try to conceal what happened by misleading the public and the reporters by issuing public statements when making him seem like he lost a lot as a result. Both Collins and his son pleaded not guilty, but he did eventually plead guilty to sharing the information. When addressing the court, he said “now I stand here today as a disgraced former member of Congress.” He resigned ahead of pleading guilty to avoid a broader set of charges.

What is creating such a culture that makes it easier for politicians to think they can do whatever they want and get away with it? One reason is silencing whistle-blowers. What is whistleblowing? Well, it is one individual act to five information to the public that is disclosed to some on the outside. The information is something about a wrong-doing. The person that makes the information public is not a journalist or a general member of the public, but a member of the organization. So, a whistle-blower exposes important information about any injustice or corruption to the public. Whistle-blowers are therefore important to our society because they protect us from lawbreaking that we never knew existed. They bring important things to light that we, the public, are not aware of. The fact that politicians can shut down the voices of people that tries to expose them and injustice, and that their aloud to do so is suspicious and encourages a culture of corruption where they think they can do whatever they want and will get away with it. If politicians are able to get people out of their ways when they try to expose them, then they are allowed to continue doing things without our knowledge. Also, it should be encouraged to be a whistle-blower to make politicians especially aware and more conscious of what they do. They should not get too comfortable in their positions. Who else are going to enlighten us of such things? Whistle-blowers are important, they should not be arrested and having to flee.

One famous example of a resent whistle-blower having to flee in exile is Edward Snowdon.

He was a former National Security Agency subcontractor who in 2013 leaked top-secret information about the NSA surveillance activities revealing that they had been spying on the public. The U.S. charged Snowdon with violation of the Espionage Act and “theft of government Property” and “unauthorized communication of national defence information.” He now lives in asylum in Russia, and some see him as a hero and others a traitor.

Whistleblowing is an important tool to combat corruption, but is something that has been not applauded but discouraged and criticized. People who raise their voices and reveals thing that have been going on under the dark are now having to flee and hide as political refugees in other countries because of it. How come? Why do we arrest people who bring corruption to light, and not support them? By arresting and punishing whistle-blowers, and make them flee their country, it has the effect of scaring people into not wanting to share important knowledge and information about injustice happening in the government under our noses. This is not a culture we should encourage. This is a major flaw in the American democracy.

In conclusion, America´s problem with corruption is as big as the country itself. In this text I only touched on a few of the issues. The problem with corruption in America is that it is subtle. You do not see or think about. It is also almost justified in some cases when there are gaps in the laws that allows some people to get more influence than others. America as a result is almost governed by a few, not the entire people. Also, because people who try to revealed corruption are being silences because fear of having to flee or get arrested it creates culture in America that facilitates corruption and sneaky behaviour. Because of America´s past scandals, they are now a people that do not have trust to politicians, and this mistrust can be exploited by others seeking power, it has, and probably will in the future. We will see what the future holds for America and this situation, unfortunately it seems like it is going the wrong way looking at the statistics. To quote Leonard Cohen, “you aren’t going to like what comes after America. ‘I’ve seen the future and it is murder.” Hopefully they have not given up, and end what’s seems to be an indifference to this situation.

Source list:

https://www.transparency.org/news/pressrelease/2019_CPI_US_hits_new_low (17.03.20)

https://whistlebloweraid.org/?gclid=Cj0KCQjwyPbzBRDsARIsAFh15JZ2PUJnZmDJFBb7e8a9jfNfvH4RAOV2Ke_LhXdECmQz3BjtGVxSi5gaAtqVEALw_wcB# (20.03.20)

https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=5810&context=etd (26.04.20)

https://www.history.com/topics/19th-century/credit-mobilier (04.05.20)

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watergate_scandal (06.05.20)

https://www.history.com/topics/1970s/watergate (06.05.20)

https://www.history.com/news/nixon-secret-tapes-quotes-scandal-watergate (06.05.20)

https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/educational-resources/watergate/watergate-aftermath (06.05.20)

https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2019/9/30/20892036/chris-collins-resigns-insider-trading (09.05.20)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTO3eg0eBQ8 (10.05.20)

https://www.biography.com/activist/edward-snowden (11.05.20)

https://www.coursehero.com/file/plialjk/Leonard-Cohen-You-wont-like-what-comes-after-America-Ive-seen-the-future-and-it/ (11.05.20)

International English – Term test fall 2018

Task 1

Task 1a

In this speech given by the late US president John F. Kennedy about how and why we must create peace, we see a few examples of use of literary devices and language features. Here are a few of them.

First and foremost, we see that the text is written with the personal pronoun, “I.” This is common I speeches, which this text is. It helps making the speech more personal. He starts the whole speech with “I, “and says “I” evenly throughout the speech. This helps, after my opinion, to make the speech more powerful.

He also, right at the beginning of second paragraph, asks two rhetorical questions, “What kind of peace do I mean?” and “what kind of peace do we seek?” Asking these questions makes the audience, or us readers, participate and connect with the speech, it also makes us think. They make the speech powerful and more interesting because they in some way make us stay more awake.

We also see a lot of repetitions in the text. For instance, In the second paragraph, after he asks the rhetorical questions, he answer with “not a […],” and “not the […].” He repeats the word “not.” Doing this helps emphasising the message he is trying to give and makes it easier for the audience to remember the message because he keeps repeating it. He underlines a point he is trying to make. He also repeats, in the same paragraph, “not merely” twice.

Not only do we see examples of repetitions in the second paragraph, but there is also an example of use of imagery. The president, when explaining “genuine peace,” says “the kind of peace that makes the earth worth living, the kind that enables men and nations to grown and to hope and to build a better life for their children, […]” He creates an image that helps add further layers of meaning to what he is trying to explain.

In addition, he uses a metaphor in the third paragraph when he is saying that the “words of the pursuer” of peace “falls on deaf ears.” This helps to create an image for the audience that adds, the same as the imagery, layers of meaning because of the object, or in this case, body part that it is being said. “Falls on deaf ears” means in other words, that they are not listening. He also uses metaphor in the beginning of the last paragraph when he says “so let us persevere like boats against the current.” Here he also gives us an image, and compare us, the audience to boats.

Lastly, we see examples of the use of alliteration in the fourth paragraph in this speech. President John F. Kennedy says for instance “dangerous, defeatist,” and uses rhymes like “dynamic not static.” This helps making the speech a lot more fluent and powerful. It also helps underlining the point he is trying to make.

Task 1b

The political blogger Alex Burton wrote a statement that included questions and claims like “how on earth can people claim that the world is a better place to live in today than 50 years ago,” and “how can anyone claim that there is hope in this broken world?”

To Alex Burton I will first and foremost say that according to statistics that show battle deaths per 1 000 000 people from 1946 to 2014, we can clearly see that the amount of people that died in 2014 compared to in 1946, or in 1950 are a small fraction compared to the. In 1950 there were around 225 battle deaths per 1 000 000 people, while in 2014 there were only 20. That is almost nothing compared to 1950.

Nowadays we see and are more aware of the conflicts and wars around us because of the media. Now we know about them, and now we see them on the news and on social media. We are more connected to the world around us now then for instance in the 1950s. Conflicts and wars are not something that is only happening now. I assume that Alex Burton remember World War II, and the wars and conflicts that came later on during the 1900s. There have always been conflicts and wars, unfortunately. We are more confronted with these things now because the media shows it because it sells, especially if it is something very tragic and bad.

But, looking at the statistics and seeing how the deaths have decreased should give a bit of hope. It is possible, especially now that everyone around the world are aware and knows about these conflict and wars, to do something about it. There is hope, if we all, togheter, help making a change.

Task 2

Task 2b

It not easy being a student and being constantly challenged with new things all the time. Imagine also being new in a country and upon that, having to deal with those challenges, and with the same new things, but also having to adapt and learn a completely new language very different from your mother tongue? Foreign students have to deal with many of the same challenges we all face as students, but which additional challenges do, for instance, Peri the Turk from the text, “The Dictionary,” as many other foreign students, face?

Firstly, something these students might find challenging is having a social life. It is hard getting to know people, especially if you do not speak the language. An example is Peri, who found it hard to join clubs or various societies. She “shied away from every single one.” She also wanted to focus more on her studies, so things like getting a boyfriend or “placing another human being” in the “centre of your life,” was according to her, “a lot of effort.” This might be another reason why students find it hard to get a social life, because they have travelled so far to study in another country, so they take their studies very seriously. The same was for Peri, she said “she had no time for” boyfriends or friendships. She would rather focus on learning the language and doing her best in school. When foreign students focus a lot of their energy on studying they spend a lot of time in their rooms, and do not go out much as well. That is why having a social life is hard

In addition, following lectures in school and expressing yourself both verbally and orally, is a challenge for many of these students. The language barrier makes it hard for many to participate in class activities and discussions. It also makes it harder for students to fully participate and succeed in their classes. These foreign students have to work very hard to complete things or do things well. At least we that know the language do not have that problem, but these students do. Peri herself, felt like she had to work hard to improve her English and her vocabulary because “her brain was in need of expressing itself fully.” You can imagine the frustration they feel not knowing how to express their thought the way that they want.

So, understandable being a foreign student presents a lot of academic issues for the individuals, which is hard for them since the majority of them want to succeed, and most of them take their studies very seriously. They do not want to let the fact that they have left family and friends to be in vain. They have a goal they want to achieve. Peri had problems academically with, for instance, writing assignments, and “putting her thoughts on paper,” Which is not easy if you are not comfortable with a language or know it well, or do not know it at all.

Not only are the language challenging in the beginning, but even after you learn the language it is difficult to understand native speakers. They might speak faster, which makes it hard for the students to keep up, or use a lot of different slangs and phrases the student have never heard before. They also have other dialects that might be hard for foreigners to understand. It is naturally hard for these students to adapt to this. In Peri’s case, she studied hard and learned various of words. When the time came when she had to present an essay of hers to her tutor stopped her and asked “Was that even English?” in a “perplexed and amused” way. The reason was that she used a lot of very sophisticated words, that to a native and everyday American was unusual to use. “How could the foreigner and the local hear the same words so differently?” she said, which describes it very well.

To conclude, yes, there are many challenges that foreign students faces when they study in a different country, and we can tell that many are connected with the language barrier. That is the main problem. That is why most the struggles are tied to each other and the cause is the same and goes back to the same issue. It is hard to get friends or participating in things or feeling confident in your studies if understanding or knowing the language is a problem. But it is an understandable issue. Us students deal with a lot, and insecurity is one of them. Also, making friends and doing well in school is not easy for us that know the language either, so imagine these students that have to work twice than us. That is why they deserve twice as much praise that they are getting now, twice as much respect and twice as much help. But, at the end of the day they are in my eyes, when they finish their degree and succeed, twice as good of a student that I will ever be. I do not think I would be able to do what they do.

Source:

Task 1a:

Adapted from: http://www.humanity.org/voices/commmencements/john.f.kennedy-american-university-speech- 1963

Task 1b:

Task 2b:

Shafak, Elif. Three Daughters of Eve. London: Viking. 2016.

Dennis, Taylor. “Publication date unknown” https://www.inklyo.com/struggles-international-students-face/

Study Abroad – presentation

Study Abroad – presentation manuscript

On NTNUs website, where I am planning to go anyways, they recommended the University of Auckland in New Zealand, and I thought that New Zealand seemed like an exiting choice. I saw that they had a programme in Bachelor in nursing there as well.  It’s a 3-yearlong study, full time, and it gives me about 360 points, which is exactly the points I need.  

Application

There are a few entry requirements that vary from what programme you are applying for. But, a general requirement is that you have to provide evidence that your English is proficiency, since I am a foreign student and English is not my first language. I have to meet the requirements through an improved English language test or prior study in the English medium. You have to provide evidence through IELTS or TOEFL.

You also have to provide documents to support your application. This is also required. You have to give evidence of your name, date of birth and citizenship through sending for intense with a birth certificate, or a copy of your passport, or any other evidence. Also, evidence of prior studies like academic transcripts. It can be sent now digitally through MyQuals.

All documents have to be translated to English by an authorized translation service and professional organisation approved by a government body(example) in Norway, and the documents must be prepared and certified by a translation service in New Zealand. The school suggests NZST, “New Zealand Society of Translation.”

You must also submit additional documents like interviews, portfolios or auditions, or supplementary forms. After submitting your application, you will be sent an email with any additional requirements.

They did not specify if they needed a personal statement or teacher recommendations but the school have thousands of applicates, so it doesn´t hurt . It helps you stand out a bit. It is good to have.

Recommended grade is 4 or 5.

Other expanses

Visa

The plan is to study there for more than one year I am studying for more than 6 months I have to apply for a student visa. The requirements for this visa is that a already have and can prove that I have gotten an offer from a school. I also have to provide evidence of sufficient funds to live from while your studying, like a job, lawn ext.

Also, you may need if you’re staying for more than 6 months to be screened for tuberculosis.

The costs for applying for me as a Norwegian, applying online for the Auckland region is $495 NZD, and it will take around 47 days to process the application.

Tuiton fees:

Bachlor of nursing estimated $34,361

Inkl. Student Service dee of $33 per point for international students.

Find a place to live

180 NZD per week (cheapest)

In the heart of Auckland

Short walk away

Financing:

I searched around for various jobs, here is one of the ones that I found. This job is a job as a retail assistant where I earn $17 an hour, Monday to Friday from 4 pm to 6 pm.

I can also apply  for support from Lånekassen, and I can get a scholarship/loan that can be up to 304 227 kr for one year.

Transport: As a full-time student you can get a 35% discount on public transports, and bike is a way they recommend because its cheap, you can take the bike on the train, the ferries ext. and it’s good for the environment of course. There are also a lot of bike parking places on campus so it is quite convenient.

In addition to the tuition fees, there is a student service fees. In the program Bachelor in Nursing for International students you have to pay 33 NZD per point. So if I want to study there for three year and gain the full 360 points, so 11,880 in total. That does not include course books, or health insurance and other living costs.

Student life

Auckland is New Zealand largest city, and about a third of New Zealand population lives there. There are many things to see and do there, and the university offers a lot of student activities. One thing I looked into were the many art and culture clubs that they offer. They have for instance a student band, a student comedy club, a write club, a symphony orchestra, debating club and many more. I though the write club looked interesting.

On the University´s website they listed many theatres and art galleries and other exiting things you can do in Auckland if you want to go sightseeing. There sure is a lot to fill your days with. Many actives in water as well like surfing, kayaking and other water sports. (Not that I dare to try does things, but the opportunities are there)

There are also a lot of sports. In Eden Park you can watch international rugby and cricket matches.

New Zealand culture

What were mention by many sources about the social customs and manners was that New Zealanders are quit private people, and even though they seem very friendly and outgoing you should avoid asking personal questions like economy ect. Personal space is also an important thing. Do not stand to close.

Some New Zealand customs are to always to take your shoes of indoors, and they may greet with kiss on the cheek or with the hongi, which is a traditional maorian way of greeting. It described as a handshake but with your face. Maoris also say a prayer to bless the food before they eat, so if you go and visit a family it is probably good to know.

Food, or sharing food is also important because it brings people together. Food and friendship goes together. Or, at least that’s what they say most places I have read. It is common to bring food or wine to share if you go to visit someone there.

Language

Even though English is the main written and spoken language in New Zealand, even native English speakers struggle. Kiwis speak quickly and use a lot of slang, which can be confusing if you are not used to it.

Sources:

The university of Auckland website

Ansa

Governmant of New Zealand website